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Welcome to the Patient Education Library of Child Neurology Consultants of Austin

We invite you to explore our comprehensive list of resources and educational materials designed to help educate you about your child’s neurologic condition or treatment. Simply click on a topic below to learn more.

If you have any questions or concerns regarding your condition or treatment, please feel free to contact Child Neurology Consultants of Austin at (512) 494-4000. To request an appointment, use our secure online appointment request form.

This information is intended for educational and informational purposes only. It should not be used in place of an individual consultation, examination or the medical advice of your doctor. This information should not be relied upon to determine a diagnosis or course of treatment.

Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders of childhood. People with ADHD have difficulty paying attention and are often easily distracted. They also may be impulsive (act without thinking) or hyperactive. ADHD is estimated to occur in 3-7% in children. It is more common in boys than girls. ADHD is a lifelong disorder, although symptoms can improve with age. More information here.

Also:
ADHD Diagnostic Criteria
ADHD Medications

Autism Spectrum Disorder

Autism spectrum disorders include a continuum of developmental disorders of the brain. Children with ASD have impairments in social development, difficulties with verbal and non-verbal communication, and repetitive or stereotyped behaviors and interests. Some children with ASD have intellectual disability. Every child with ASD exhibits a unique combination of symptoms, ranging from mild to severe, prompting experts to recommend use of the term Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) to describe this population. Children previously diagnosed with classic autism, Asperger’s syndrome, and PDD-NOS are all on the autism spectrum. More information here.

Also:
Autism Diagnostic Criteria

Behavioral and Mood Disorders

Children are often referred to a neurology specialist because of concerns about their moods and behavior. If a neurological condition is not identified, such children will often be referred onwards to a child psychologist or child psychiatrist for further evaluation and treatment of a mental health disorder. In some cases, a child may have both a neurological condition AND a mood or behavioral disorder. In that case, your neurology provider may continue to treat the neurological condition, but refer you to other mental health specialists for management of the mood or behavioral condition. Some common mood and behavioral diagnoses include anxiety disorder, bipolar disorder, conduct disorder and eating disorder. More information here.

Bullying

Bullying is intentional, unwanted, and aggressive behavior directed against a school-aged child. A bully uses their power-such as physical strength, popularity, or access to embarrassing information-to intentionally torment another child. The child who is bullied feels powerless to stop the bullying. The bullying behaviors are repeated, or have the potential to be repeated, over time. Bullying includes actions such as making threats, physically or verbally attacking a child, spreading rumors, or deliberately excluding a child from a group. More information here.

Cerebral Palsy

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of neurologic (brain) disorders that affects the way the brain communicates with muscles. This causes lifelong difficulty with movement, strength, and balance. While CP doesn’t worsen over time, the symptoms can change with growth and development. It occurs in about 3 out of every 1,000 babies born. More information here.

Also:
Cerebral Palsy Management

Developmental Delay

A developmental delay means that your child may not be meeting appropriate developmental milestones at certain ages regarding skills associated with cognitive thinking, social and emotional interaction, speech and language, fine and gross motor movements and/or everyday tasks such as dressing, feeding, and generally caring for one’s self. Click below for developmental details for each age group.

Epilepsy

Epilepsy is a diagnosis used to describe someone who has two or more unprovoked seizures. The brain controls how the body moves by sending out small electrical signals from the brain, through nerves, to the muscles. A seizure is caused by an abnormal burst of electrical activity within the brain that changes the way the body functions. Seizures can cause someone to become unresponsive, have unusual body movements, or behave strangely. This can last from a few seconds to minutes. More information here.

Also:
Electroencephalogram (EEG) test
SUDEP (Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy)

Concussions

A concussion is a type of traumatic brain injury that changes the way the brain works and functions. Concussion is caused by trauma to the head, or a blow or jolt to the body that causes the head and brain to move rapidly move back and forth. A child does not have to lose consciousness (“be knocked out”) to have a concussion. Although concussions are usually not life-threatening, they can have serious effects on a child’s physical, emotional, and cognitive functioning. More information here.

Headaches/Migraines

Children, and adolescents especially, can suffer from painful headaches and migraines just as adults do, and they can be equally as debilitating.

Chronic headaches and migraines are often treated with several types of medications with differing uses and goals. Your physician may use one medication as "rescue" therapy when you have a bad headache. For patients with very frequent headaches, a daily preventative medication may be used to reduce the frequency of headache attacks. Lastly, there are some non-prescription daily preventative medications that may be used independently or in addition to prescription preventative medication. More information here.

Prematurity

A premature baby is born too early, before 37 weeks gestation. About half a million babies are born prematurely in the US every year. Many premature infants require special care in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). As NICU care and medical technology improves, more and more premature infants are surviving. However, the earlier a child is born, the higher the risk for long-term health and developmental problems. More information here.

Psuedotumor Cerebri

Pseudotumor cerebri literally means “false brain tumor”. A person with pseudotumor cerebri (also called Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension, or IIH) does NOT have a brain tumor. Instead, buildup of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) inside the skull causes symptoms that mimic the symptoms of a brain tumor. The increased pressure in the skull presses on brain and eye structures, leading to a number of different neurological and visual symptoms. More information here.

Seizures

Seizures are disruptions in the normal electrical activity of the brain. Epileptic patients almost always experience seizures, but it is important to note that not all seizures are caused by epilepsy. Below are links to information about various types of seizures:

Fever/febrile seizures
Focal seizures
Generalized seizures
New onset seizures
Refractory seizures
Seizure first aid and precautions

Sleep Habits

Sleep is very important for everyone. All children require a certain amount of sleep each day to ensure proper mental and physical development. During sleep, the body releases natural growth hormones that children need for growth, learning and memory. A poor night of sleep or inadequate total sleep time can lead to health problems in children, such as poor school performance and lower grades, decreased alertness and concentration, increased mood and behavioral problems, and headaches. Children with epilepsy are also more susceptible to seizures when they are sleep-deprived. More information here.

Also:
Sleep medications